Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil suppresses inflammatory processes making these fatty acids attractive candidates for both the prevention and amelioration of several organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have been conducted to determine whether fish oils containing the n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can be used in the prevention and treatment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and lupus nephritis. In a toxin-induced mouse model that mimics the early stages of IgAN, n-3 PUFA consumption suppresses aberrant interleukin (IL)-6- driven IgA production and mesangial IgA immune complex deposition by impairing phosphorylation of upstream kinases and activation of transcription factors essential for IL-6 gene transcription. n-3 PUFAs can also suppress production of anti-double-stranded DNA IgG antibodies and the resultant development of lupus nephritis in the NZBW F1 mouse and related models. These effects have been linked in part to impaired expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules as well as increases in antioxidant enzymes in kidney and immune organs. Several recent clinical trials have provided compelling evidence that n-3 PUFA supplementation could be useful in treatment of human IgAN and lupus nephritis, although some other studies suggest such supplementation might be without benefit. Future investigations employing genomics/proteomics and novel genetically altered mice should provide further insight into how n-3 PUFAs modulate these diseases as well help to identify clinically relevant biomarkers. The latter could be employed in future well-designed, longterm clinical studies that will resolve current controversies on n-3 PUFA efficacy in autoimmunemediated glomerulonephritis.
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Background and objective
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) associates with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Hypertension is a major determinant of progression of CKD. Omega-3 fatty acids (v3FA) protect against CVD via improvements in blood pressure, heart rate, vascular reactivity and serum lipids. Coenzyme Q
(CoQ) may improve blood pressure and vascular function. This study determined whether v3FA and CoQ have independent or additive effects in improving the cardiovascular pro?le, particularly blood pressure and heart rate, in nondiabetic patients with CKD stages 3–4.
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem and can result in end-stage renal disease with need for dialysis or transplantation. In Europe up to 12% of the adult population had some renal impairment, while in the United States the end stage of CKD has increased dramatically from 209.000 in 1991 to 472.000 in 2004. Diabetes and hypertension are major causes of kidney pathology. Infection, particularly ascending infection, is more common with increasing age, as both immune function declines and associated pathology predisposing to infection, such as obstructive uropathy, becomes more common. Most pathological changes in the kidney appear to be initiated by oxidative stress, followed by an inflammatory reaction. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between free radicals and their detoxification by endogenous and exogenous scavengers, including polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). Recent studies showed that PUFA supplementation slowed the rate of loss of renal function in patients with IgA nephropathy. Then, studies of omega-3 supplementation in dialysis patients describe salutary effects on triglyceride levels and dialysis access patency. We examined the relationship between total plasma PUFA levels and change in creatinine
clearance over a three-year follow-up in the older persons enrolled in the InCHIANTI study, a population-based epidemiology study conducted in Tuscany, Italy. This study showed that older adults with low total plasma PUFA levels have a greater decline in creatinine clearance over three years of follow-up. These findings suggest that a higher dietary intake of PUFA may be protective against progression to chronic kidney disease.
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